15 Facts You Should Know

The Arctic Ocean is the world’s most northerly ocean in terms of volume. It encircles and runs under the Arctic Ocean. However, as temperatures continue to rise, this is beginning to alter in large parts of the Arctic Ocean. It may seem like a barren wasteland, yet the Arctic Ocean is teeming with life. Despite being the world’s smallest ocean (at 6.1 million square miles), the Arctic is suddenly garnering worldwide attention it has never before experienced. Warming temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing scientists and international officials to race to grasp better how they will affect the ocean’s waters and, hence, the climate. The Arctic Ocean is warming at a rate unmatched by any other body of water on the planet, and it is already suffering the effects of global warming.

Climate

In addition to solar radiation, the landmasses around the Arctic Ocean periodically send winds, rain, and temperature-altering river flows into the ocean, affecting the climate there. Long, frigid winters and short, chilly summers characterize the Arctic Ocean’s climate. Regional and global climatic conditions are mostly determined by solar radiation in the atmosphere.

On the other hand, solar radiation is affected by factors such as latitude and the amount of cloud cover. There is less sunlight penetration at higher latitudes and more frequent cloud cover changes, which results in large light penetration variations. Because of its greater latitude, the Arctic Ocean experiences very frigid temperatures, exacerbated by the presence of ice, snow, and water. The Arctic ocean’s four distinct seasons result from the year-round availability of sunshine.

Location

There are 65.2482° N and 60.4621° W inside the Arctic polar area of the Northern Hemisphere, which is where the Arctic Ocean sits. North America and Eurasia encircle the continent, including Greenland, Russia, Iceland, Canada, Norway, and the United States. The Alpha Ridge, Lomonosov Ridge, and Arctic Mid-Oceanic Ridge separate the Arctic Ocean bottom into three distinct regions. The whole northern hemisphere is submerged under the icy waters of the Arctic Ocean.

Currents

These two primary currents are Beaufort Gyre and Transpolar Drift Stream in the Arctic Ocean. In general, the flow of surface waters around the polar ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is clockwise. Warm waters from the Pacific Ocean go over the Bering Strait to the Arctic Ocean. High winds force the water to flow in a counter-clockwise direction in the Beaufort gyre, mixing with the river water.

Water may be dragged out of the gyre and through the North Atlantic Ocean, even with minimal winds. The North Atlantic water might return to the Arctic Ocean, bringing warm, salted water, making it heavier and sinking underneath the Arctic Ocean. Because of the increasing salinity, there is a stagnant pool of cold water accumulated at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean basin.

The Polar Ice Cap rotates around the Arctic basin every four years due to the sluggish movement of the Arctic current. At the same time, freshwater from the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea flows into the Fram Strait through the Transpolar Drift Stream. As a consequence of the Transpolar Drift Stream, freshwaters from the Arctic basin are mixed together and flow into the Canada Basin.

15 Fascinating Facts

1
Despite its tiny size (it's the smallest of the world's five main oceans), the Arctic Ocean encompasses 14 million square kilometers, almost twice Australia's area!
2
As Earth's greatest terrestrial predator, the polar bear is unique in that it is exclusively found in Arctic waters. As their name implies, hyper carnivores consume a diet that contains at least 80% meat. In the dead of winter, female polar bears give birth to pups in their dens. They're only 30 to 35 centimeters in length; they're light as a feather at about 50 grams. However, the biggest polar bear ever recorded weighed more than 1,000 kg and was about 3.5 meters tall!
3
Although Greenland's ice sheet covers 84% of the country, the lower valleys burst into life in summer with a kaleidoscope of color. Some of Greenland's 500 species of flowering plants, ferns, and grasses, including the country's national flower Niviarsiaq, or broad-leaf fireweed, may be found in the lowland valleys.
4
Wild reindeer roam the streets of Longyearbyen, the capital of the Svalbard island in Norway, on a regular basis. They are used to human contact and are regarded as kind.
5
We take our long summer days for granted in Australia, but the term "long" has a whole new meaning in the Arctic! 30 days in June, the sun rises above the Arctic Circle and never sets again. I will never forget the moment I saw the sunrise over the horizon at midnight. The longer the summer day progresses, the closer you go to the North Pole, where the sun never sets for 187 days!
6
Iceland is a place where volcanoes and geothermal activity happen all the time. 30 post-glacial eruptions have erupted in the last two centuries, earning the country the nickname "Land of Fire and Ice." Natural hot water sources provide the majority of the population with affordable and environmentally friendly heating.
7
According to the United Nations, an estimated 4 million indigenous people are living in the Arctic. Greenland's three indigenous Inuit ethnic groups, the Kalaallit, Tunumiit, and Inughuit, make up around 89 percent of the population.
8
Odobenus rosmarus, the scientific name for walruses, translates as "tooth walking sea horse.". Walruses have a tight hierarchy based on tusk length, body size, and aggressive displays. As in the walrus world, power may be short-lived. When a walrus loses a tooth in combat, it might soon fall out of favor!
9
There are a lot of seabirds in the Arctic, but there are no penguins! If you want to watch a penguin parade, you'll have to go south!
10
Many enthusiastic kayakers believe that the Arctic is where modern kayaking started. qajaks, or skin-on-frame kayaks, first appeared in Greenland at the turn of the 16th century. Sea kayaking with skilled guides throughout the Arctic and paddling amid glaciers and icebergs in Greenland, Svalbard, and Iceland may help you connect with this historical heritage.
11
Most of the year, the Arctic Ocean is completely covered by sea ice in the northernmost area on Earth. In this area, temperatures stay close to the threshold at which saltwater freezes. As saltwater makes up the Arctic Ocean, the freezing point of seawater is 28.8 degrees Fahrenheit (1.8 degrees Celsius).
12
It is the world's only ocean that extends all the way to the north of the equator. It runs under and around the Arctic Circle. The vast portion of the Arctic Ocean is permanently frozen over, but this is starting to change as temperatures increase. Despite its barren look, the Arctic Ocean is home to various organisms.
13
The Narwhal, sometimes known as the "unicorn of the sea," is an enchanting Arctic animal. Around a tenth of the planet's freshwater resources are in the Arctic Ice Sheet. A large white ice reservoir maintains the area's temperature. Maintaining the stability of our overall climate system is also vital to its success.
14
More than 30'000 years after they initially arrived, the original people of this area are still here. Statistics show 17 distinct ethnic groupings among the Russian Arctic's indigenous peoples. The native languages, customs, affiliations, cultural and sociological structures, and values of these social groupings vary widely. In general, the indigenous populations of the Arctic are small, with an average population of fewer than 50,000 individuals.
15
"Icy rain," as the weatherman put it. "Icy rain" is unique precipitation seen in the Arctic. Every drop of rain is not frozen but rather encased in a layer of ice. Ice shells are formed when ice droplets contact hard surfaces and break apart.

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