Australia & Oceania –35 Facts You Should Know

Where Is Oceania Located?

Located in the Central and South Pacific Oceans, Oceania is an area made up of hundreds, if not thousands, of islands that may be found across the region. Although it does not contain the continent of Australia, Oceania is sometimes regarded as a continent in its own right.

What Is The Origin Of The Name Oceania?

Oceania is largely made up of water-surrounded island states and archipelagos. The Pacific and the Indian Oceans surround it. The French traveler Dumont d’Urville picked the name in 1831, and it quickly became popular in society at the time. Oceans rather than tectonic plates connect the continents in the area, which is why it’s called the Oceania region. Indeed, so much of it is covered by water that Oceania has the lowest land area and also the second-smallest inhabitants after Antarctica.

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Is There A Difference Between Oceania And Australasia?

No! Australia and New Zealand are often referred to as Australasia. There is no reference to Asia in the name; it simply refers to the southern half of the continent. Melanesia, Oceania, on the other hand, includes Australasia, Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia as subregions. A more exact depiction of this region could not be found anywhere else.

Geography

It is estimated that the land area occupied by Australia and its island state of Tasmania is about equivalent to that occupied by the United States (except Alaska and Hawaii). Mount Kosciusko is the highest peak in the eastern mountain ranges, which extend north to south along the east coast (7,308 ft; 2,228 m). This part of the continent consists of desolate, undulating hills along the west coast that ascend into a desert plateau. Nearly 1,245 miles (2,000 kilometers) of the Great Barrier Reef may be found on the northeastern shore. Nearby the southeast coast of Australia lies the large island of Tasmania (26,178 square miles; 67,800 square kilometers).

History

Approximately 40,000 years ago, the Aborigines made their way to Australia from Southeast Asia, making them the country’s earliest residents. At the time of European arrival, there may have been anywhere from 500,000 to 1,000,000 Aborigines; currently, there are around 350,000 of them living in Australia.

Australia was discovered in the 17th century by ships from the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. In 1616, the area was renamed New Holland and became a colony. It wasn’t until Captain James Cook’s trip in 1770 that Great Britain claimed ownership of New South Wales, a huge island, and renamed it. Until 1839, the practice of transporting and settling English prisoners was put on hold, although a British penal colony was established in 1788 at Port Jackson (today known as Sydney).

New South Wales (1786), Tasmania (formerly Van Diemen’s Land) (1825), South Australia (1834), Western Australia (1829), Victoria (1851), as well as Queensland (1851) were all founded by free immigrants and former captives (1859). Several gold rushes, as well as the extraction of other minerals, drew immigrants. Grain production and sheep farming rapidly became significant sources of income. 

Australian federalism was established by incorporating British and American federalism into the constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. For example, Australia became widely recognized for its liberal laws: free compulsory education, protection for trade unions, the secret ballot, women’s suffrage, birth, and old-age pensions, and the right to vote.

Facts

1
There are 14 nations in Oceania, including the Pacific Islands and Australia. Although Australia is often referred to as a continent, this does not include the many islands and nations that make up the continent's outside rim. Oceania is, in reality, a large expanse of water.
2
Oceania stretches from 28°N to 55°S in the northern and southern hemispheres.
3
Sydney is the most populated and largest city in Oceania. Australia's largest metropolis is home to more than 5 million people. Among Oceania's most cosmopolitan cities is Sydney. There are more than 250 languages spoken in this city. '
4
The continent's largest and most powerful economy is located in Australia. New Zealand is the continent's sole major economy. The region's economy relies heavily on mining, industry, and tourism.
5
Animals from all around the world may be found in Oceania. There are marsupials in Australia, the continent's biggest nation. Animals with pouches are known as marsupials. Kangaroos, wombats, possums, and koalas are just a few examples. Australasia, as well as the Americas, are the only places where marsupials may be found.
6
The region's climate is varied. In the Australian desert, temperatures may exceed 50 °C (123 °F), whereas, in New Zealand, temperatures can fall to 25 °C (14 °F).
7
Oceanian Christians make up about 73% of the population. Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and the Baha'i faith are also practiced in the country. They also believe in ghosts and natural forces in traditional cultures.
8
Rugby has been the most popular sport in this part of the country. It is the national sport in New Zealand, Tonga, Samoa, and Fiji. Cricket is the sport of choice in Australia. There is just one country in Oceania that has soccer/football just like its national sport: Vanuatu.
9
The world's oldest art tradition belongs to Indigenous Australian rock art. More than 60,000 years ago, indigenous people in Arnhem Land began painting in this style, and it is being done today. Because they didn't have access to writing systems, most of their creative output was in the form of paintings and carvings.
10
Many indigenous languages are spoken in Australia and New Zealand. However, English is the main language. Australia is thought to have had more than 250 distinct language families. Many indigenous languages are part of the Pama-Nyungan family, the largest and most diverse. This area has already lost many of its original languages.
11
Geographers disputed the geographical limits of Oceania, making it an extraordinarily large area of the world. It is made up of Australia, as well as a vast and tiny constellation of islands, most of which are situated to the north and east. Over 100 million square kilometers (38,600,000 square miles) of ocean area are occupied by approximately 10,000 such islands, but only about 3 million square kilometers (2.5 million square miles) of land.
12
They arrived in the Solomon Islands around 30,000 years ago after living in Australia for 60,000 years. The human race is a relative newcomer in some isolated corners of Southeast Asia, having just arrived there 1,000 years ago.
13
Cannibalism is a well-known fact of Oceanian history. Erromango, formerly known as Martyr's Island in the Vanuatu archipelago, was visited by two British missionaries in 1839. The villagers devoured them. At least until 1969, anthropologists thought cannibalism was prevalent in this region. The recipe for murdering and frying a person was even given out by a local in 2008. (baking time is 3 to 5 hours.) Human flesh-eating was common in Fiji until the 1800s.
14
Oceania is well named since water is the region's most prominent characteristic. Only 8% of the area is above the surface of the Pacific Ocean (as we said earlier, 100 million square kilometers of the ocean but for 8 million square kilometers of land). Oceania's population density of eight individuals per square kilometer may not be surprising given its modest landmass (roughly 3 people per square mile).
15
New Zealand, the continent of Australia, and other Pacific Island groupings make up the geographic area known as Oceania. Melanesia, Micronesia, as well as Polynesia are the sub-regions of the region. We've only included sovereign island states on this page since many of these island groupings are overseas territories of other countries, such as Australia, France, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
16
There are 15 sovereign governments and 25 dependencies in Oceania, all in the southern hemisphere, with a combined land size of 9,038,000 square kilometers, making it the world's smallest continent, despite Australia being the only continent there.
17
In Oceania, the largest atoll in the world, the island of Kiribati in Kiribati's nation, the largest broadleaf forest in the world, the Great Barrier Reef off the north and east coasts of Australia, the world's largest coral reef, the Phoenix Islands of Kiribati, the world's largest marine park, Fraser Island off the east coast of Australia, and the world's largest desert island, Fraser Island, are all found.
18
In addition to the Great Victoria, Great Sandy, and Gibson deserts in Australia, the New Caledonia Barrier Reef, the world's second-largest barrier reef, and the 3,500kilometer-long Great Dividing Range of Australia, Oceania is home to the world's fourth, 7th, and tenth-largest deserts.
19
In terms of land area, Australia occupies 7.6 million square kilometers, whereas Nauru, an island republic, occupies a mere 21 square kilometers of Oceania.
20
At 3,745 meters, Mount Cook in New Zealand's Southern Alps Mountain Range is Oceania's highest point.
21
16 meters below sea level, Lake Eyre, Australia, is the lowest point on the continent of Oceania.
22
The Murray River in Australia is Oceania's largest river, measuring 2,375 kilometers.
23
Sydney, Australia, has a population of 4.6 million people and a land area of 12,145 square kilometers, making it the biggest metropolis in Oceania.
24
Just one monarchy exists in Oceania, Tonga, although the other five Commonwealth Realms in the region are headed by Queen Elisabeth II, who serves as head of state.
25
English is the most widely spoken of the twenty-eight official languages of Oceania, which also includes many varieties of the Polynesian language family, as well as French and Spanish.
26
Oceania is also home to Papua New Guinea, which boasts the most languages globally, with 820 domestic and regional languages.
27
Volcanic eruptions from high islands are often referred to as volcanic islands. They originate underwater when magma is cooled and solidified by saltwater. As a result of this action, islands develop with a sharp peak in the center. The summit is surrounded by ridges and valleys that go to the sea. An island chain is known as the "Ring of Fire" is located on the Pacific Ocean's eastern edge, including Melanesia.
28
Coral islands refer to low-lying islands. Small sea creatures called corals make up the bones and bodies of these structures. Atolls, composed of a series of smaller islands arranged in an irregular ring, are common on low-lying islands. When a coral reef grows around a volcanic island, an atoll is a result, and the lagoon is left behind.
29
As you go west, you'll find yourself on a wide plateau. East of Perth, the west coast contains a fertile strip similar to that on the east coast. In the Kimberley area, in the far northwest, the scenery is beautiful and almost entirely devoid of people. Located in the tropics, Darwin may be found to the north.
30
Between both the Eastern Highlands and Western Plateau are the Central Lowlands, which include the Great Artesian Basin, including Australia's two major river systems, the Murray-Darling and Lake Eyre.
31
The northernmost point of Australia is Cape York, located at the easternmost tip of Australia's east coast. Its rocky beauty and sparse population make it a natural fit for the interior and northwest regions of the United States.
32
The Great Barrier Reef, which runs along the east coast of Queensland for 2,300 kilometers, is the world's biggest and most complex living coral structure. Tasmania, a huge and hilly island off the southeast coast of Australia, is a popular tourist destination.
33
The coastline is home to about all of Australia's population. Most of Australia's people reside on the country's coasts because of the huge deserts in the center region. The bustling cities of Perth, Sydney, and Melbourne, as well as the nearby beaches like Bondi and Trigg, are must-see destinations in Australia. Hundreds of tiny beach communities may be found along Australia's coast outside of the country's larger cities.
34
The Aboriginal Australian languages of the Pama–Nyungan and Trans-New Guinea families, as well as about forty Polynesian languages, are among the major languages spoken in Australia. English is spoken in several territories, including Australia and New Zealand, while French is used in New Caledonia and French Polynesia, as well as in many other areas. Some colonial-indigenous hybrid languages exist, including Tok Pisin, Bislama, Chavacano, and Norfuk. Similar to other regions of the world, immigrants in the United States carried their native tongues with them, including Chinese, Greek, and Italian.
35
With a climate as pristine as Antarctica and a third of the state designated as national parks or World Heritage Sites, Tasmania is the perfect place to enjoy the great outdoors. Wineglass Bay and the Bay of Fires may be seen from the island's coastline walks, which wrap their way around the island.

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