Melanesia – 12 Facts You Should Know

Melanesia is situated on the eastern side of the Pacific Ocean. Located in the southern Pacific Ocean, the Melanesia area is comprised of several islands. One thousand islands make up the Arafura Sea, which is in Indonesian waters. It runs from New Guinea in the north across to New Caledonia as well as the waters around it. Melanesia is home to more over 12 million people. Humans have occupied the region for thousands of years. Melanesia, which means “black islands” in Greek, refers to the skin tone of the people who live there. In terms of regional politics, the area is divided into six sovereign states and one colonial dependency.


The majority of the languages spoken in Melanesia are part of the Austronesian or Papuan family of languages. In one study, there are 1,319 languages spoken in Melanesia, which are scattered across a small area of land. The 716 sq km per culture is the largest number of languages per the landmass of Earth, nearly three times that dense in Nigeria, which is a nation known for its large number of languages within a small region.

Alongside the numerous native languages spoken in the region, indigenous pidgins and creole languages have been developed typically through trade and interaction with cultures for long before European encounters. Particularly notable are Tok Pisin as well as Hiri Motu, both of which are found in Papua New Guinea. They are both now considered distinct creole dialects. The use of Tok Pisin is increasing. It is often used as a first language, particularly by multi-cultural families. Other creoles are Solomon Islands Bislama, Pijin, Papuan Malay, and other related languages.

Geography and Climate

The 2,000 islands of Melanesia have a combined land area of approximately 386,000 sq miles (1 million square kilometers). The vegetation in the region is comprised of forest areas and forests. Melanesia is humid and has a tropical climate throughout the year. The temperatures get even hotter and more humid during the months between November and April. Still, they become cooler and dryer between May and Oct. Melanesia is distinct from Polynesia in the east and Micronesia in the north by a geographic characteristic called the Andesite Line and is where major volcanic activity and earthquakes occur.

Sea Life And Diet

The history of the world records that the numerous communities that were found in the area of Melanesia had trade relationships with one another and even shared a political stance up to 3500 to 3,000 years in the past. Trade-in obsidian and shell ornaments were especially common. The prehistoric Austronesian people who first arrived in Melanesia were equipped with sophisticated technology, which allowed them to become skilled navigators.

The ability of the Melanesians to navigate through the vast oceans of their region has led to their love of fish and other fish in their diet. Even today, fishing is still central to economic activity throughout the region. The old-style Melanesian diet is also comprised of leafy vegetables, root crops as well as coconuts, and fruits. However, globalization’s effects have led Melanesians to alter the way they consume food. Their diets have included more red meat, processed foods, and even processed meat.

12 Fascinating Facts

More than 45,000 years of evidence point to the existence of the Melanesian Civilization. Harry Truman Simanjuntak, one of Indonesia's most notable archaeologists, argues that the Melanesian race has controlled West Papua for the past 45,000 years. In the past, the inhabitants were known as Australomelanians, who was believed to be carrying out a wide variety of ancient civilization discoveries like hunting, belief systems and hunting tools, and even dwelling.
Melanesian People living in the West Papua Have Multifarious Languages. The fact that Melanesian people living on the entire mainland of West Papua as well as surrounding small islands have different languages from each other is awe-inspiring. Why is it that the only island has more than a hundred traditional languages? While the Melanesian languages are part of similar roots, called Papuan, the words and accents are quite different. The primary reason each village has its own language is due to the geographic separation and social isolation.
Amazingly diverse and extraordinary cultures that amaze everyone. Melanesian people from West Papua astoundingly come with an array of unique styles of dress, from everyday habits and food to housing. Have you ever heard of the tradition of cutting fingers practiced by the Dani tribe Dani? If one of the family members passes in death, the woman's family members must give up their fingers for cut-off. This custom aims to express grief and respect for the deceased ancestor. Locals call it Ikapilin.
The people who live in West Papua residing in the highland are very religious and stick to the traditional customs passed down by their forefathers. They maintain their exquisite lifestyles. Regarding the religion of the Melanesian culture is always linked with the practice of animism. Even though some have converted to Christianity but the ancient religious practices that involve celebrating the animist gods can be observed in the whole of West Papua. The pigs that are raised are typically offered for the offering.
Melanesia is a collection of indigenous people from Melanesia, the ethnic group of the Pacific Islands. Melanesian culture is the term used to describe their way of life and beliefs. Arcing from north to south, the islands create a ring. It runs from New Guinea to Fiji and other smaller islands, passing via the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu).
UN figures show that the Melanesian population grew by 1.87 percent in 2019 compared to the previous estimate, which is equivalent to 0.14 percent of the global population. Here are some statistics about Melanesia about its global population.
The western portion of New Guinea is indeed Papua which is a part of Indonesia. About 80% of the total population of Indonesia and the Melanesian race is in Indonesia. The central part of the Melanesian race is split into 3 regions: West Melanesia, Indonesia, and Australia.
The number of Melanesian people living in Indonesia is estimated to be 11 million. This is among the facts about Melanesia that are fascinating to consider. It is greater than the total population of other nations and is recognized as the largest in the world—Melanesia population.
There are as many as 1,319 different languages spoken by Melanesian people spread across the globe. A majority of these diverse languages belong to the Papuan family of languages. In the astonishing facts of Melanesia, It can be said that there are over 270 languages spoken in West Papua scattered all over the region, including Bahasa Asmat, Bahasa Aikwakai, Bahasa Karon Dori, and numerous others.
There are numerous distinct traditions in Papua, ranging from the daily routine and food to housing to clothes. One of the unique traditions that are possibly one of the most extreme customs you've heard of is the cutting of fingers by the women of the clan of Dani from West Papua, called Ikapilin.
The Ikapilin is performed when an individual in the family has passed away. It is essential that the woman's family members sacrifice themselves and cut their fingers off. It is believed to express gratitude to the person who departed as well as to show sorrow.
Indonesia is home to a variety of races from across the globe. The fact that the people who were the ancestors of the Papuan tribe were among the very first to arrive at the archipelago in the prehistoric era and these historical facts of Melanesia demonstrate the fact that Papuans make up part of Indonesia's Indonesian Nation, as well as the indigenous Papuans, are not different from all other Indonesian people.