Western Sahara - 19 Fascinating Facts, Geography, Economy, Food, and Agriculture

It used to be a Spanish colony, but Morocco took it over in 1975. For a long time now, Morocco and also its indigenous Saharawi people have had a long-running territorial dispute. The Polisario Front is in charge of that fight. After a long insurgency, the UN-brokered a truce in 1991. The commitment of an independence referendum hasn’t come true yet, though. A buffer zone, or “berm,” surrounded by landmines and fortifications, runs the length of the disputed region, separating the Moroccan-administered western section from the Polisario Front-controlled eastern half. The Polisario Front established SADR in 1976, and it is now recognized by numerous states as a permanent member of the African Union. Oil resources are also thought to exist off the coast of Western Sahara, where phosphates and good fishing grounds are found.


Western Sahara is almost entirely desert, and very few people live there. Semara (Smara) is home to some of Western Sahara’s most important Muslim landmarks, including the Kasbah and mosque. The main city is Laayoune, which was the colonial capital. Camel, goat, and sheep are produced in the area, and dried fish is sold to the Canary Islands. There is minimal agriculture in the region, although there is some livestock. Potash and iron ore may be found in abundance in Agracha and other locations, while enormous phosphate reserves can be found at Bu Craa, which is located southeast of Laayoune. Phosphate extraction, on the other hand, is difficult because there is not enough water.

Over 60 miles (100 kilometers) of phosphate conveyor belts were often damaged during the Sahrawi guerilla fight against Morocco in 1976. Motorable tracks are all over the country’s very flat land, but there aren’t many paved roads. Regular flights connect Laayoune to Al-Dakhla (previously Villa Cisneros), Las Palmas (Canaries), Nouakchott (Mauritania), as well as Casablanca (in Morocco).

Economic Growth

Western Sahara is just another example of a state where the government has an iron hand over the economy. In fact, Morocco controls the economy of Western Sahara, which makes the economy of Western Sahara and Western Sahara itself different from other places in the world. This is what Western Sahara looks like: It is a poor place. It fights all the time and doesn’t know how to stay organized. The resources of other nations are taken advantage of as a result of this. Because of this, Western Sahara isn’t going to grow very much, and its economy isn’t going to change very much either. As a rule, it won’t get better until it gets its own country or Morocco gets better, and Western Sahara comes with them.


Western Sahara relies heavily on imported food, and agriculture is severely restricted due to the area’s vast desert landscape. When they eat, they follow North African customs when it comes to how to cook. There are certain fruits and vegetables developed specifically for eating, although they are not unusual. Unleavened bread, Meifrisa is a traditional dish from Western Sahara made with lamb or camel meat, onions, and garlic. It is served on couscous, goat meat, unleavened bread, and camel milk.


There are no trees in Western Sahara, which means it is very dry there. It doesn’t get enough rain or have enough freshwater to support a big farming business. It doesn’t have a lot of resources from the earth, so As a result, Western Sahara relies heavily on imported food. There are a few oases where they grow fruits and vegetables, and nomads keep camels and goats, as well as sheep and sheep. Oases are very dependent on what is going on in the world around them. The Arabian camel is the most important animal in the livestock sector. Most farmers in the country raise camels.

There are also goats, sheep, and cattle, but camels outnumber anything else in terms of population. It’s a dark picture, but not everything is lost. “It helps the agricultural sector when farmers use traditional and clever knowledge about how to use water and agricultural oases to their advantage. In addition, the mild winters around the coast make it possible to grow vegetables year-round ” (“Agriculture & Farming”). Due to the fact that the terrain is mostly desert, agriculture is severely restricted.

19 Fascinating Facts

Western Sahara is mostly desert land in northwest Africa. A low, flat desert dominates the region's topography, with just a few minor mountains in the region's south and northeast.
In Western Sahara, people speak Hassaniya, Arabic, and Moroccan Arabic, which are three languages.
The Sahrawis, who claim origin from the Yemeni tribe of the Beni Hassan, are the largest ethnic group in the region.
Desert flatlands make Western Sahara one of the sparsely inhabited areas in the world.
Most of the people are Arab, but some are Berbers. They are all adherents of the Islamic faith.
The sirocco wind is hot, dry, and full of dust. It makes a haze that covers a lot of the country and makes it hard to see.
The climate of Western Sahara is generally hot and dry, with little precipitation. As a result of the chilly offshore air currents, fog and dew accumulates.
There is Sebjet Tah at 55 m, and there is an unnamed place at 463 m.
There are camels, sheep, fish, and other animals that are used for farming in the desert. Western Sahara has a lot of good fishing waters.
The economy is tiny and centered on the free market. In addition to phosphate mining and handicrafts, the economy relies heavily on these businesses. They bring in food and fuel for their fishing fleets from outside the country.
Scientists say that the Sahara is now 10% bigger than it was a century ago, which is a lot. Natural climatic cycles have a role, but so does human-caused climate change.
A museum at a refugee camp in Western Sahara. The Museum of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army is where you can learn about the history of the people who lived there. It shows cars, weapons, and clothes from people in Western Sahara who wanted to be free.
The indigenous inhabitants of Western Sahara are referred to as Saharawis. The Moroccans, on the other hand, call them "Southern Berbers" or "Southers."
West Sahara's economy is also helped by tourism and farming. The Moroccan government thinks of West Sahara as its "southern province." Thus, the government is in charge of all business in Western Sahara. People who live here get all of their food from Morocco, which is where they come from.
The government of Morocco provides price controls and incentives to the people of West Sahara in order to entice them to settle there.
West Sahara doesn't have the power to run itself. Thus, it will be hard to exploit it if it has natural gas or oil fields, so that will make it hard.
As many as two-thirds of all the people who work in West Sahara work in the phosphate mining as well as fishing industries,
Western Sahara's natural resources are minimal, despite the fact that it possesses phosphate deposits and fishing seas. Due to a shortage of freshwater supplies and rainfall, agricultural activities aren't properly supported.
Only 2% of the country's GDP comes from phosphate reserves. Thus, it isn't very important in Western Sahara.